CLIMATE CHANGE and their prevention and solution

Climate change is the average state of the atmosphere near the earth’s surface over a long span of refers to many elements including temperature, precipitation, humidity, air pressure, wind movement, and direction. The geographical location (latitude coastal or continental position) and physical settings (e.g. mountains) influence the climate of any country. Bangladesh extends from 20’34’N to 26’38’N latitude and from88’01’E to 92’41’E longitude. It is bordered by the Himalayas to the north and by the Bay of Bengal to the south. Time. it

As the Tropic of Cancer passes through the country, a tropical climate prevails. The influence of the monsoon wind is so strong that as a while, the climate of Bangladesh is known as a tropical monsoon climate

In brief: characteristics of a tropical monsoon climate

  • two dry seasons with a low rainfall
  • cool and dry
  • hot and dry
  • rainy season with a very high rainfall
  • high annual temperature
  • seasonal distribution of rainfall
  • high annual rainfall
  • high humidity

Seasonal Variations

The season is the climate type, at any place associated with a particular time of the year. The change of season in mainly to the change in the angle of the earth’s axis of relation to the position of the sun at a particular place

Bangladesh is called the land of six seasons. It has a tropical climate because of its physical location. The Bangladesh calendar year is traditionally divided into six seasons

  • summer
  • rainy
  • autumn
  • late autumn
  • winter
  • spring

Each season lasts on average two months, but some seasons merge into other seasons while others re short. More broadly Bangladesh has three district seasons

  • the hot and dry pre mason seasons from March to May
    • the rainy monsoon seasons from July to October
    • the cool and dry winter season from November to February

The seasons of Bangladesh regulate its economy communication trade Nd commerce art and culture and in fact the entire lifestyle of the people. The influence of the tropical monsoon climate is Cleary evident in Bangladesh during the rainy season and the cool dry winter season

Characteristics of the hot and dry pre-monsoon seasons

  • high temperature
    • the occurrence of thunderstorms

April is usually the hottest month in the country. After April increasing cloud cover lowers the temperature. Wind direction changes from time to time in this season, especially during its early part. Rainfall which takes place during his dime accounts for 10 to 25 percent of the annual total. This rainfall is caused by thunderstorm

Characteristics of the rainy monsoon seasons

  • very high humidity
  • heavy rainfall
  • long consecutive days of rainfall
  • south to southwesterly winds

The rainy seasons coincide with the summer monsoon. The rainfall of this season accounts for 70 to 85 percent of the annual total. The is caused by the tropical depression that enters the country from the Bay of Bengal

Characteristics of the cool and dry winter seasons

  • low temperature
  • cool west or northwesterly winds
  • clears skites
  • low rainfall

The average temperature in January varies from 17 in the northwesterly and northwest of the country to 20 21 in the coastal areas. The minimum temperature in the extreme northwest in, Late December and early January can be as low as 3 4

Factors which contribute to rainfall and cyclones

Monsoon rainfall

Seasonal changes in the wind direction are caused by the differential heating and cooling of landmass and oceans between summer and winter. the monsoon wind blows from the northwest in winter and from the southwest in summer.

Depression rainfall

Depression is a region of low atmospheric pressure. A depression form as warm, moist air from the tropic mixes with cold, dry polar air, producing war and cold forms. The warm air being less dense above the cold air rises above the cold air to produce the area of low pressure on the ground the rising warm air cools rapidly, condensation occurs, clouds form and rainfalls. Depression occasionally develops over the Indian ocean or in the Bay of Bengal. The timing of such depression coincides with the southwest monsoon wind. During such depression, continuous heavy rainfall occurs in Bangladesh for 7 to 10 days. At the time more than two to three weeks of rainfall may occur in Sylhet and cox bazar

Thunderstorm rainfall

Thunderstorms are tropical storms with thunder and lightning accompanied by heavy rain hail. On hot, humid days, the air near to the ground is heated up. As a result, warm moist air expands and rises rapidly. This rising air cools, condenses into water vapor, forming cumulonimbus clouds. This results in heavy rainfall. These storm clouds are usually 5 km wide and 8km high. Usually, an individual thunderstorm is just one ‘cell’ in a group of storms, which may be 30 km wide, lasting for more than five hours. A single cell storm can also become a superstorm covering an area of 50 km. This produces large hailstones, strong winds, thunder, and lightning. climate change

In Bangladesh, in early summer during March/April and late monsoon in October/November, this type thunderstorm occurs in the evening with great intensity. This is popularly known as Kale Baisakhi in the early summer and Ash shiner Johor during the late monsoon.

A cyclone is a tropical storm or atmospheric turbulence involving circular motion of winds. Technically, a cyclone is an area of low pressure where strong winds blow around a center in an anticlockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere and a clockwise direction in the Southern Hemisphere. Cyclones occurring in the tropical regions are called tropical cyclones. The tropics can be regarded as the region lying between 30`N latitude and 30`S latitude. All the tropical seas of the earth, with the exception of the south Atlantic and southeast Pacific, give birth to this atmospheric phenomenon known as tropical cyclones. Bangladesh is a part of humid tropics, with the Himalayas on the north and the funnel-shaped coast touching the Bay of Bengal on the south. This peculiar geography of Bangladesh brings not only the life-giving monsoon but also catastrophic cyclones, nor’ wester, tornadoes and floods. The Bay of Bengal is an ideal breeding ground for tropical cyclones.climate change

Cyclones in the Bay of Bengal

The funnel-shaped coast near the Bay of Bengal very often becomes the landing ground of cyclones. The Bay cyclones also move towards the eastern coast of India, towards Myanmar and occasionally into Sri Lanka. But they cause the maximum damage when they come into Bangladesh. This is because of:

           -the low flat terrain

           -the high density of population

           -poorly built houses.

What is global warming?

One of the biggest environmental challenges that affect not only Bangladesh but also the whole world is the poem’s common climate change. Worldwide it has been observed that the temperature has been slowly increasing in the 20th century. This phenomenon is called global warming.

Cause of global warming

The main reason for global warming is the increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, chiefly due to the burning of fossils fuels

Climate Change: Effects of global warming

According to the current prediction, this temperature rise will cue the polar and Himalaya ice caps to melt to a rise in the earth’s sea level of at least 2 to 3 meters by the year 2050. This will undouble cause all the low-lying delta regions of the world to be submerged and that is bad news for Bangladesh. A huge percentage of the southern part of the country is at risk of being submerged by the Bay of Bengal climate change

Possible solutions

  • Develop a better warning system, as most of the losses in life occur due to the delayed warning. There is the technology to detect a storm days before it can actually hit a particular area, but it the dissemination of the information to the people that is the delayed. the news needs to spread faster and more efficiently
  • The construction of houses in the areas can be modified so that they re more resistant to the atom surge and the strong winds. Sometimes a raised platform can be useful as this helps people to stay above the level of the water when the surge passes
  • Other measures can be taken by the =government such as the construction od sluice gates which van hold back the water. However, the cost of such a scheme is prohibited
  • It would be possible to declare the storm-affected areas as uninhabitable but management is unlikely to do so as the resources of the land are scarce in Bangladesh climate change


climate change

The folds plain ecosystem of Bangladesh covers about 80% of the total land area. During severe floods which occurs May to October, this percentage may increase considerably.

Cause of floods

Heavy rainfall in the country makes the water level to rise and case fled flood. The river has a large number of tributaries which drain finally into one channel which runs down to the sea. Often this single channel is not enough to drain water from all the tributaries and the river over lows its bank

Effects of floods

Floods cause a lot of problems for the average people. People are rendered homeless valuable property is lost and road damages. Often crops are lost Nd livestock die in the onslaught of the river water

Possible solutions

  • Giving metalogical information to the people so that they can be warned in time and evacuated to a safer place
  • And management to reduce surface runoff which includes intensive afforestation and reforestation programmed to increase the absorption of the water
  • Change the use of the land in the flood-prone areas and the planting of flood-resistant crops


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